Injury Control and Emergency Health Services

Injury Control and Emergency Health Services

Welcome to the Injury Control and Emergency Health Services Section! Our Section embraces all professionals interested in unintentional injury, violence, emergency health services and emergency preparedness.

At over 550 members and growing, our Section works to advance injury prevention and control research, training, advocacy, policy and programming. We are a multidisciplinary Section that includes experts in epidemiology, medicine and research within a wide range of injury issues, from intentional to unintentional injuries impacting every segment of the population. We are invested in training and supporting the next generation of advocates and practitioners in our field. Join our Section to get more fully engaged with issues critical to your work, to network with colleagues and to enhance opportunities to present your work.
GET INVOLVED!

Short on time? You can still be more involved in our Section:

Respond to an advocacy alert.
Post field-related information or opportunities on your online community/listserv.
Write an article for our Section’s News & Events page.
Encourage a colleague to join APHA.
Review abstracts.
Join a committee (advocacy, communication, membership, etc.)

Contact Jacob Kopp to learn more.
Jacob Kopp

History

Note: This document was revised 3/29/17 for this Section. If you’d like the entire paper you can download it by clicking on the pdf icon. We have printed a small part of it below in this post:

Shaping the Millennium: A History of Child and Home Injury Prevention With Applications to Leadership Systems

Leslie Fisher, MPH

Executive Leadership Coach and Mentor Archivist Emeritus, Injury Control and Emergency Health Services Section, American Public Health Association Former Assistant Director, Research and Policy Development, Office of Public Health Management, New York State Health Department

Part 1

Home and Children Injury Prevention

ABSTRACT Using history, leadership systems and personal reflections, the author assesses more than 190 articles, primarily published in Public Health Reports, The American Journal of Public Health and other supportive sources for gaps, on child and home injury prevention in ancient times, in the Middle Ages, during the nineteenth century … to the creation of the American Public Health Association‘s Injury Control and Emergency Health Services Section in 1972. The resulting ‖bookshelf‖ on the impacts of injury prevention personalities, on events and values, overlaid by several modern leadership systems conceptual frameworks, may better interface on the continued progress of modern injury epidemiological and prevention systems. The understanding of interacting injury control historical and leadership systems can promote newer evidence- based science and art crafts and skills. More applied historiographical research, in service training and professional education curricula can guide continued professional and organizational growth in injury prevention, especially during losses of institutional memory and economic downsizing of resources.

“Science is built with facts, as a house is built with stones. But, a collection of facts is no more a science than a heap of stones a house.”

Henri Poincare. La Science et l’hypothese Flammarion, Paris, 1902. Introduction. In Mark Buchaanan. Nexus. Small Worlds and Groundbreaking Science of Networks.W W Norton & Company, NY, NY. 2002.11

“Verily, the works of those gone by have been circumstances and examples to men of modern day, that folks may view what admonishing chances befell other folks, and therefore take warning.”

Arabian Nights

“The only new thing in the world is the history you don’t know.”

Harry Truman

”There is no dichotomy between government and politics.”

W. Wilson

Omnia mutantur, nos et mutamur in illis. (All things are changed and we change with them).

various, after Ovid

Introduction/ Background

As a fifty year seasoned veteran injury prevention researcher, practitioner and educator /advocate, I often passionately still seek the unattainable “magic” bullet to improve our national and international legacy to prevent injury risk, risk status and poor outcomes. The US history of the injury control movement offers significant guidance in leadership of potential transfer value to worldwide1 educators, practitioners and researchers for current injury epidemiological, primary prevention, acute care and rehabilitation practices. However, there is little awareness and application of diverse earlier and gradient successes and failures, and of newer models in leadership systems. From the initial idea of a program to today‘s1 economic national downsizing cycles of organizations, institutional memory must be assessed. Today, such memory is only the one year old web review that has no view of the pages that preceded it, to help guide long range efficient and effective decisions on public service during national and international economic downturns.2 Injury Prevention, with relatively less resources as a newer public health discipline, has been especially susceptible to such ‘ups and downs‘.

1 See for example: www.who.int/entity/violence_injury_prevention/child/injury/world_report

Although certainly, William Haddon JR’s sentinel injury etiologic and preventive framework is usually taught,3 (see: Part 7 An Epilogue and Summary: One Leadership Archetype), little in-service training in injury control history and leadership systems is being conducted in the United States. 4 5 6 7 8 (Figure 1: An Historical Timeline).

Figure 1: An Historical Timeline of Injury Prevention

1924 Cadillac offers first car with safety windshield glass equipment as a standard. 1913 US Congress charters National Safety Council. 1932 Maryland is first US State to introduce mandatory car inspections. 1937 Godfrey publishes one of the first U.S. statements on the need for public health involvement in “accident” prevention, in AJPH. 1943 APHA Committee on Administrative Practice appoints a subcommittee on “accident” prevention. 1945 APHA Subcommittee on “Accident” Prevention develops program guidelines for accident prevention. 1950 American Academy of Pediatrics forms Committee on “Accident” Prevention. and Poison Control. 1955 McFarland publishes Epidemiological Principles Applicable to the Study and Prevention of Child Accidents in AJPH. 1956 First annual Stapp conference on the biomechanics of crashes. 1957 APHA policy statement urges health agencies to assume an active role in all types of “accident” prevention programs; INDY 500 physicians racing enthusiasts establish American Association for Automotive Medicine (Association for the Advancement of Automotive Medicine); Snell Memorial Foundation’s testing, development, research and educational leadership in helmet standards. 1959 Insurance Institute for Highway Safety founded. 1960 APHA publishes public policy statement recommending that “accident” prevention be recognized as a major public health problem. 1961 APHA publishes Accident prevention: The Role of Physicians and Public Health Workers. 1961 Journal of Trauma begins. 1963 Haddon publishes “injury matrix” concept paper. 1964 Injury Prevention training offered in 11 schools of Public Health. 1965 Ralph Nader published Unsafe at Any Speed. 1966 National Highway Safety Bureau (later National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, NHTSA) established to set car safety standards in 1968. 1966 National Research Council report: Accidental Death and Disability: The Neglected Disease of Modern Society is published. 1968 The Federal Gun Control Act passed by Congress 1968 American Trauma Association Established 1968 Lapbelts in all seated occupants are installed by the four major manufacturers of US automobiles. 1969 Accident Analysis and Prevention and, also, the Journal of Safety Research begin publication. 1970 The Federal Poison Prevention Packaging Act passed. 1970 National Institutes on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism established. 1970 National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health established. 1972 The Federal Flammable Clothing Act passed. 1972 Consumer Product Safety Commission established. 1973 EMS Act passes US Congress. 1974 General Motors produces first air bags. 1974 Congress mandates 55 mph national maximum speed limit. 1974 National Association of Governor‘s Highway Traffic Safety Representatives established. 1976 National EMS/ PCC law passed with limited funding. 1973 National Center on Child Abuse and Neglect established. 1978 US State of Tennessee first worldwide to mandate child passenger safety law. 1978 US RID (Remove Intoxicated Drivers) established. 1979 Federal Division of Maternal and Child Health (DMCH) of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services established (designated as a Bureau later). 1979 Promoting Health/Preventing Disease: Objectives for the Nation published. 1979 Center for Disease Control (CDC) establishes a violence epidemiology branch to track incidence of interpersonal violence. 1980 First population-based and emergency room based injury surveillance system implemented in two states. 1980 Mothers Against Drunk Driving (MADD) established. 1981 First National Conference on Injury Control, sponsored by the Johns Hopkins University and CDC. 1982 CDC publishes Injury Control Implementation Plan for State and Local Governments 1983 MCHB publishes Developing Childhood Injury Prevention Programs: An Administrative Guide for Maternal and Child Health (Title V) Programs. 1984 Congress establishes the Emergency Medical Services for Children program. New York State enacts first US seat belt law. 1985 Every state has passed legislation requiring the use of child safety seats. 1985 Injury in America: A Continuing Public Health Problem published by the Committee on Trauma Research. 1985 Surgeon General’s workshop on “Violence and Public Health.” 1986 CDC awards five academic centers $2 million to address research on injuries. 1986 MCHB awards demonstration funding to address violence prevention. 1986 Minimum Drinking Age passed by Congress. 1987 Launch of the National Safe Kids Campaign. 1987 First Injury In America Conference, (as partnership with CDC and NHTSA). 1988 Injury Control, a follow-up to Injury In America published. If you’d like the entire paper you can download it by clicking on the pdf icon at the top of this post.

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Present Day

The Injury Control and Emergency Services Section embraces all professionals and trainees interested in unintentional injury, violence, emergency health services and emergency preparedness. Professional members form the U.S. and throughout the world bring a global perspective to the work on the Section. Our membership reflects the diversity of the field:

  • • Epidemiologists, educators and public policymakers
  • • Specialists in emergency medicine, acute care, rehabilitation and disaster preparedness
  • • Injury control practitioners in state and local health departments
  • • Researchers and academicians
  • • Students, fellows and trainees
  • • Direct health service providers
  • • Biomechanical engineers, administrators and attorneys

What We Do

  • Promote the exchange of knowledge and experience through:
    • • scientific programs at the APHA Annual Meeting and Exposition;
    • • workshops, roundtable discussions, continuing education and training courses;
    • • methodological advances in injury science;
    • • approachable expert speakers;
    • interactive poster sessions;
    • • offering current information on injury, violence and data issues of national significance via bi-monthly electronic newsletters;
    • • networking socials; and
    • • advocating for key issues in the field.

     

  • Recognize scholarship, leadership and service by:
    • • presenting annual awards to outstanding students and professionals; and
    • • supporting promising students and early-career professionals with APHA scholarships.

How and What We Advocate

  • Our Section embraces student participation. Students are invited to join a committee of interest, co-chair a committee, run for elected office, participate in advocacy issues, and write articles for the Section newsletter. Students are encouraged to take full advantage of all Section activities as a way to get to know, work with and be mentored by injury and violence prevention professionals.
  • Thanks to the work of our Development Committee and our generous donors, our Section offers scholarships to students to support APHA membership, attendance to the APHA Annual Meeting, and attendance at our annual awards dinner.
  • Our Section presents an annual award for best student paper, to foster and reward quality research efforts among students involved in the field. Awardees have the opportunity to fast-track their papers to publication in the journal Accident Analysis and Prevention. This award is generously supported by the Liberty Mutual Research Institute for Safety.
  • The Section’s Presidential Road Safety Scholarship Fund supports students for outstanding contributions to injury research. The program is made possible with contributions from leading national and international injury prevention and road safety organizations, including AAA Foundation, Association for the Advancement of Automotive Medicine, American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials, Insurance Institute for Highway Safety, and Make Roads Safe-The Campaign for Global Road Safety.

How We Engage Students

  • Our Section embraces student participation. Students are invited to join a committee of interest, co-chair a committee, run for elected office, participate in advocacy issues, and write articles for the Section newsletter. Students are encouraged to take full advantage of all Section activities as a way to get to know, work with and be mentored by injury and violence prevention professionals.
  • Thanks to the work of our Development Committee and our generous donors, our Section offers scholarships to students to support APHA membership, attendance to the APHA Annual Meeting, and attendance at our annual awards dinner.
  • Our Section presents an annual award for best student paper, to foster and reward quality research efforts among students involved in the field. Awardees have the opportunity to fast-track their papers to publication in the journal Accident Analysis and Prevention. This award is generously supported by the Liberty Mutual Research Institute for Safety.
  • The Section’s Presidential Road Safety Scholarship Fund supports students for outstanding contributions to injury research. The program is made possible with contributions from leading national and international injury prevention and road safety organizations, including AAA Foundation, Association for the Advancement of Automotive Medicine, American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials, Insurance Institute for Highway Safety, and Make Roads Safe-The Campaign for Global Road Safety.